Project Management in Education and Training (EDUC – 6145 – 3) An Example of Scope Creep

An author for a certain successful book series had already agreed to write two more manuscripts for her book series.  This was not just a verbal agreement, but a written and signed contract, which related the expectations of the responsibilities of the author.

Apparently, she preferred not to have her manuscripts edited and resisted any efforts of the publishing house to make necessary changes to her manuscripts.  The publishing house recognized that every author’s work requires editing, even if the person’s name happens to be Shakespeare.

As time progressed larger publishers were entering the arena in the author’s genre of books.  The competition increased, and many authors were beginning to demand a flat fee up front, before they even delivered their manuscripts.  In this particular situation, the author decided to demand a larger flat fee, which this smaller publishing house could not afford, nor was it in the contract she signed.

Nevertheless, it was her opportunity to extend her authority over her manuscripts, while receiving a lucrative flat free.  Another larger publishing house came along and presented her an offer she could not refuse.  In addition, the larger publishing house agreed not to edit her manuscripts and kept them as she wished.  Not surprisingly, she never kept her part of the contract for the two more manuscripts with the original publishing house.  Eventually a larger publishing house bought out the smaller original publisher of the book series, since they were no longer able to compete in the larger markets.  Until today, this author never kept her part of the contract by submitting two more manuscripts.

Stakeholders refused to take her to court; probably realizing the incurred financial costs for lawyers and other services was not worth the effort.  Moreover, even if they forced the author to submit the final two manuscripts, she could renegade on the quality of the content.  None of her books with the new publishing house even came remotely close to selling as well as her previous books with the smaller publisher.

It is always easy to look back in retrospect and identify how to deal with the unexpected scope creep of an author wanting a large flat fee, and freedom from editing.  Documenting everything is important for avoiding miscommunication and moving the project away from its original intent.  In the contract it might be important to include details regarding the requirements of completing all agreed upon manuscripts before signing on with another publisher.  In addition, the author would incur a considerable fine if she failed to maintain her part of the contract.  Furthermore, it would be appropriate to identify the potential risks and learn from others on how to avoid these potential pitfalls (Portny, Mantel, Meredith, Shafer, Sutton, & Kramer, 2008).

Project Management in Education and Training (EDUC – 6145 – 3) 3rd Post

Trimble WinEst is a powerful database for estimating in an Excel like interface for various work-breakdown structures that a project manager may perform concurrently.  The filters allow a project manager to present in a style that fits a company’s expectations and establishes templates in conjunction with the individual projects, and company brand.  If a person leaves, they will be unable to take the estimating power with them, since it belongs to the company’s template.

BuildSoft Pro empowers project managers to use previous history estimates to produce budget estimates for new projects.   With this software the user can develop estimates, which they can contrast with other bids and contracts.  It helps them in accurately estimating the cost of resources for construction and negotiating with the client.  The software updates any changes to the schedule or tracking jobs, which the project manager can view quickly and it immediately implements adjustments to the calendar.

KnowledgePlan seamlessly fits in with Microsoft Project, while its historical project data is an excellent engine tool for producing estimates for various projects.  KnowledgePlan allows the project manager to produce detailed and flexible work-breakdown structures, which a project manager can edit.   In addition, KnowledgePlan has storage ability for a company’s developed methodologies, and templates for scoring solutions.

The historical data engine or tool enables the project manager to make more sound estimates, since it relates to previous estimates, which relate to similar points of reference.  It can save significant amount of time, while supplying solid data form making important decisions.

Foundations of Research (EDUC – 6125 – 2) WK 3

WK 3 Communicating Effectively

In interpreting the three forms of communication through various modalities, they present different perspectives.  These modalities of communication are email, voicemail, and face-to-face.

The email form of communication seemed to carry a little bit of an angry tone, while leaving the impression of disappointment in Mark’s failure to complete the assignment earlier.  The communicator used strong words to express her points.  She applied the word need three times, and added emphasis with the adverb really to the first need.  She also accentuated the impact  Mark’s late submission will have upon her, and how much she needs it now by including the word I seven times, me twice, and my once.  This email appears to demonstrate the possible unintended application of confrontational words, as Mark could analyze the email in his mind.  Mark also has the potential to review the strong words repeatedly as he rereads the email repeatedly.  This could end up annoying Mark and cause him to question what she meant by what she possibly implied. When emailing, the encoder needs to carefully select the appropriate words, evaluate their impact, and leave nothing questionable for the decoder to replay in the person’s mind.  She wants Mark’s support, and not a reaction that will cause him to work negatively against the project (Portny, Mantel, Meredith, Shafer, Sutton, & Kramer, 2008).

The tonal quality of the voicemail softened the message and seemed to deemphasize the strong language found in the email (Laureate Education, n.d.).  However, the voicemail gives Mark the ability to replay the message, and still pick up on various words communicated by the speaker.  Therefore, the decoder should carefully choose his or her words to avoid any misinterpretations.  Words need to be non-confrontational, but clear in their purpose.

In the face-to-face presentation, the speaker not only expresses her requests in a gentle, and unassuming manner, her body language reflects a similar message, which neither confronts nor intimidates.  Likewise, the combination of the tonal quality with the body language, presents a more positive message difficult to interpret negatively.  It also makes it more difficult for the speaker to recall any specific words, which Mark may misinterpret (Laureate Education, n.d.).


Laureate Education (Producer). (n.d.). Practitioner voices: Strategies for working with stakeholders [Video file]. Retrieved from

Portny, S. E., Mantel, S. J., Meredith, J. R., Shafer, S. M., Sutton, M. M., & Kramer, B. E. (2008). Project management: Planning, scheduling, and controlling projects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Foundations of Research (EDUC – 6125 – 2)

Project Post-Mortem of the SALT Demonstration Farm in Cauayan City, Isabela

When I lived in the Philippines, I oversaw an agricultural project, which demonstrated Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT).  Its purpose was to provide poor farmers on sloping land with an alternative form of sustainable agriculture that would eliminate any need on commercial fertilizers.  Since SALT provides a sustainable form of farming, farmers do not need to borrow money from the wealthy lender in their villages, who charges about 30 % per crop.  Moreover, it increases the top soil, limits soil erosion, and improves the fertility of the soil.

There were two major factors impacting the failure of the SALT demonstration farm in the province of Isabela.  First was the lack of stakeholders and employees who bought into the project.  Members of the board of trustees lacked any business acumen, and none of them were agriculturists who had any previous experience working with the SALT technology.  As a result the stakeholders and the farmers who implemented the technology did not have buy into the project.  If the appropriate people were on the team, they would have made more of a positive impact in the decision process (Portny, Mantel, Meredith, Shafer, Sutton, & Kramer, 2008).

The second issue relates to the acceptance of the SALT technology by the local farmers after generations of  applying traditional farming methods.  For farmers to drastically change such a fundamental approach, they probably needed to be in a place of desperation.  All of the farmers among whom we worked were not in this state.  It is difficult to convince a person to try something new, when they do not perceive it as a need, or an answer to a desired need.

When forming a team of stakeholders, both the members of the board, and the farmers need to have the prerequisite expertise to support the project, and assist me with the necessary expertise in areas I lacked (Greer, 2010).  Therefore their belief and support of the SALT technology would eliminate certain risks (Allen & Hardin, 2008).  In addition it would help in the promotion of the technology, develop proper funding, and supply timely advice for effecting positive change (Portny, Mantel, Meredith, Shafer, Sutton, & Kramer, 2008).


Allen, S., & Hardin, P. C. (2008). Developing instructional technology products using effective project management practicesJournal of Computing in Higher Education, 19(2), 72–97.
Greer, M. (2010). The project management minimalist: Just enough PM to rock your projects! (Laureate custom ed.). Baltimore: Laureate Education, Inc.

My Reflection Week 8

As individuals continue to grow in the area of how people learn, it makes it easier to develop a greater appreciation for the community of learners in which an instructional designer belongs.  It is not a journey they face alone, but together, with the power of technology, they collaborate with fellow travelers to make an impact in the education of children and adults (Ormrod, Schunk & Gredler, 2009).

When designing and developing an instructional training program it is impossible to prescribe a singular application of learning theories and learning styles.  A number of factors dictate a diverse and holistic approach.  It is essential to consider environmental and cultural factors when determining the various options and how they relate to the previous experiences of learners (Ormrod, Schunk & Gredler, 2009). Moreover, learning strategies have a direct correlation to the self-efficacy of students.  If they lack the prerequisite skills for transferring knowledge from the short term memory to the long term memory, they may need the instructor or facilitator to equip them with the strategic tools to meet the learning demands (Ertmer, & Newby, 1993).

Consequently, a learner may prefer a certain learning style; nevertheless it may not exclusively be the best approach for mastering an idea or skill.  Applying multiple learning styles may help the student advance the transfer of knowledge into the long term memory and improve their performance (Gilbert & Swanier, 2008).

Technology can change rapidly. Instructional designers’ ability to stay current in educational environments benefits their capacity to work together and function well as a unit to achieve similar goals, even if they do not agree..

Connectivism illustrates the importance of adapting to the environment. With the plethora of ideas and the speed at which technology changes, it is easy to have a sense of drowning when attempting to keep pace with all the rapid changes.  Connectivism realizes this difficulty and communicates to those who want to remain relevant (Laureate Education, n.d.).  Mastery is no longer the efforts of a few individuals, but it is the collective voice of a network of instructional designers learning together in shared experiences.  It is the collective and collaborative effort of a network of functioning members performing together to address present day conditions.  Siemens and others who espouse his views realize that tomorrow Connectivism could become irrelevant or insufficient to address the future demands in education (Davis, Edmunds & Kelly-Bateman, 2008).  Implications of Connectivism and its relationship to the present and the future acts as a compass and encourages those in the field of instructional design to expand their learning through a vast network of people, systems and technology (Siemens, 2005).

Furthermore, while Multiple Intelligences (MI) is not a learning theory, it assists instructional designers in creating more conducive environments for learning (Armstrong, 2009). It does not assume that one form of testing matches all learners.  In addition, improving self-efficacy of learners can have a strong correlation to MI, such as Emotional Intelligence.  As learners gain strategies and skills relevant to their learning style, they learn how to manage their anxiety.  Learners who understand the negative implications of a high degree of anxiety in learning complex ideas and systems can develop strategic methods for lowering their anxiety.  Consequently, their growth in the area of Emotional Intelligence reduces their anxiety and improves their performance (Ormrod, Schunk & Gredler, 2009).

Without the community and network of instructional designers, it is easy to lose purpose and question the viability of learning when the journey faces turbulent waters.  The community of instructional designers encourages and helps their fellow travelers in maintaining focus and expanding their perspective (Ormrod, Schunk & Gredler, 2009).


Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA.

Davis, C., Edmunds, E., & Kelly-Bateman, V. (2008). Connectivism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved April 1, 2015 from

Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4),50-71.

Gilbert, J., & Swanier, C. (2008). Learning styles: How do they fluctuate? Institute for Learning Styles Journal [Vol. l]. Retrieved April 8, 2015 from

Laureate Education (Producer). (n.d.). Connectivism [Video file]. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from

Ormrod, J., Schunk, D., & Gredler, M. (2009). Learning theories and instruction (Laureate custom edition). New York: Pearson.

Siemens, G. (2005, January). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology & Distance Learning, Retrieved April 1, 2015, from

WK 7 Application: Further Reflection

Previously, I had learned a little concerning learning theories and learning styles.  However, the Learning Theories and Instruction course has presented greater depths of knowledge and applicable references to practices.  It also introduced me to the connectivist learning theory and presented how it operates and adapts within distributed networks.  Learning theories and styles establish a foundation for experimentation and develop a mindset of flexibility toward changes within the learning context (Davis, Edmunds & Kelly-Bateman, 2008).

Reflecting upon learning theories and how it relates to my learning context, expands my perspective and creates opportunities for new applications.  It also demonstrates the complexity of the mind, the diversity of environments and the incredible variability of the appropriate learning theory for each individual context (Ormrod, Schunk & Gredler, 2009).  However, resources such as time, energy and money indicate the limitations for practice.  Nevertheless, I can develop learning strategies for improving my self-efficacy by acquiring the necessary tools through my investment in my personal learning network (PLN) (Lim, 2004; Davis, Edmunds & Kelly-Bateman, 2008).

Planning and prioritization are essential aspects prior to the acquisition of knowledge or skills related to my personal context.  Planning determines what learning theories and strategies are most relevant in each situation.  Prioritization eliminates any unnecessary and unrelated learning and it directs me to what I need and want to know.  As a result, I can reduce learning into retainable and retrievable chunks of information (Cercone, 2008).  In addition, prioritization provides greater impetus, meaning and value to my learning context (Muniandy, Mohammad & Fong, 2007).

In addition to learning theories, awareness of my learning style has merit in that it matches a personal learning preference to my situation for optimal performance (Baron, 2010).  However, application of multiple learning styles may improve retention of information and increase the likelihood of transferring knowledge and skills to long term memory.  “Student learning styles may fluctuate across concepts/lessons” (Gilbert & Swanier, p. 37, 2008).

Learning resources for this course informed me of a variety of learning theories and learning styles for gaining a better understanding of how I learn.  It continues to empower me with strategic tools for enhancing my learning context and demonstrating the multiple possibilities for retaining new information (Gilbert & Swanier, 2008).  Hence it links it to previous knowledge and personal narratives (Clark & Rossiter, 2007).  Moreover learning theories direct my attention to the importance of setting aside times of reflection (Ferriter , 2009) and looking for opportunities to practice collaborative elaboration within my PLN (Laureate Education, n.d.; Davis, Edmunds & Kelly-Bateman, 2008).

Technology plays a pivotal and expanding role in my PLN.  It connects me to immediate and numerous resources of collaborative learning and can guide me to the appropriate people and places.  In many cases, technology advances the cause of situated and simulated learning and produces clarity of difficult topics (Harris, Mishra & Koehler, 2009).  Technology prepares and informs me of future considerations in regards to learning theories and trends in educational technology.  However, with all the rapid changes in society it is easy to feel overwhelmed and inundated with information.  PLN’s on the other hand direct my attention to what I actually need.  Furthermore it helps me to prioritize the value of learning the technologies I need for success in my work (Muniandy, Mohammad & Fong, 2007).

Learning theories, learning styles and associated technologies continue to develop and change.  Therefore it requires me to continue to adapt my perspective to a quickly changing context (Siemens, 2005).  As I continue to grow in my personal journey of learning, I grow in awareness of a greater dependency upon my expanding PLN.  In many circumstances, it is impossible for any person to acquire all the necessary skills and knowledge to fulfill the responsibilities in life and work.  Therefore, as knowledge increases, it becomes imperative to become a part of relevant communities of learning related to my context (Siemens, 2005).


Baron, K. (2010, March 15). Edutopia. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from

Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137–159. Retrieved April 1, 2015 from

Clark, C.  & Rossiter, M. (2007). Narrative learning in adulthood. Wiley Periodicals, Inc., 119, Fall 2008, 61-69. Retrieved April 1, 2015 from

Davis, C., Edmunds, E., & Kelly-Bateman, V. (2008). Connectivism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved April 1, 2015 from

Ferriter, B. (2009). Learning with blogs and wikis. Educational Leadership, 66(5), 34–38.

Gilbert, J., & Swanier, C. (2008). Learning styles: How do they fluctuate? Institute for Learning Styles Journal [Vol. l]. Retrieved April 8, 2015 from

Harris, J., Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2009). Teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and learning activity types: Curriculum-based technology integration reframed.Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(4), 393-416.

Muniandy, B., Mohammad, R. & Fong, S. (2007). Synergizing pedagogy, learning theory, and technology in instruction: How can it be done? US China Education Review, 4(9), 46–53.

Laureate Education (Producer). (n.d.). Learning styles and strategies [Video file]. Retrieved April 8, 2015 from

Lim, C. P. (2004). Engaging learners in online learning environments. TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 48(4), 16–23.

Ormrod, J., Schunk, D., & Gredler, M. (2009). Learning theories and instruction (Laureate custom edition). New York: Pearson.

Siemens, G. (2005, January). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology & Distance Learning, Retrieved April 1, 2015, from

WK 5 My Personal Reflections on Connectivism

Connectivism embraces changes in the construction of learning, while considering the distributed networks as a necessary function for adapting to each individual and collective situation.  It answers the call for quicker updates and revisions in learning theories to meet the present and future needs for learning communities. Therefore it adapts to the situation and implements the appropriate combination of learning theories (Siemens, 2005).

Informal discussion networks consisting of people I have worked with both past and present provides a context for developing concepts and wrestling with ideas.  It provides ample opportunities to question and engage others in relevant knowledge in the context of work and home.  These people present perspectives which expand the learning experience (Laureate Education, n.d).

When considering the Narrative Learning Theory, the stories of family, friends, co-workers, classmates, instructors, text and audiovisuals intersect with my stories to motivate, challenge and enhance my learning.  Moreover, it clarifies and explains the meaning of ideas and concepts, while constructing applicable meaning to related personal stories.

Furthermore, obtaining my bachelor’s degree in Instructional Design and Technology from Walden University, in addition to my postgraduate studies in the same field, helps me to link new knowledge with previous experiences.  Through Walden’s resources and stimulating discussion formats, there is a wealth of updated resources in relation to learning theories and instructional design (Clark & Rossiter, 2008).

My learning network continues in my work and family environments.  They supply excellent opportunities to experiment with new knowledge and transfer it to my personal context at work and home.  Previous diverse cultural contexts of the Philippines and Indonesia expanded the arena for research and testing.  Nevertheless, as the possibility of becoming an instructional designer for an overseas internship program, exciting new challenges may await for applying learning theories to various cultural environments in various locations (Davis, Edmunds & Kelly-Bateman, 2008).

Learning today is vastly different than when I graduated from high school in 1982.  In a formal environment, learning and research required physically traveling to a library or school to access the needed resources.  Today there is a plethora of available information just a click away, which a person can generally avail through a smartphone, anytime, anywhere (Siemens, 2005). However, weather conditions, inefficient funds and poor infrastructure may limit the availability to the wealth of online information.

Finally, faith provides both purpose and motivation to learn.  Faith gives me the impetus that applied knowledge has the potential to have eternal consequences (Merriam, 2008).

Many digital tools have transformed my life and how I learn.  First of all, search engines empower me with tools I need to discover and acquire the knowledge I want and need to know in response to my education, work, family concerns, interests and personal care.  When I have difficulty comprehending a certain topic or idea, I can explore Google for greater clarity and assistance in constructing meaning.  In addition, it becomes an excellent source for answering numerous questions (Foley, 2004).

Second, online education has revolutionized my life.  Online universities enabled me to gain an education, in which time and responsibilities would have hindered me in a physical university.  It also actuated a more immediate application to my work and home settings (Cercone, 2008).  The shorter the application processes the greater the transfer of new knowledge and skills into long term memory (Ormrod,  Schunk & Gredler, 2009).  The online environment supplies a social environment for asking questions and stimulates deeper reflection (Merriam, 2008).

Third smartphones, Skype and email improve the speed of communication and the time to access it.  Prior to the advent of cell phones in the remote villages of the Philippines, communication required taking transportation to town to gain the desired information.  Texting removed those barriers and provided more immediate feedback.  Moreover, Skype made the world smaller, allowing for a cheap and easy means for maintaining relationships overseas.   Skype, email and smartphones make it easier to ask questions and receive more immediate answers (Davis, Edmunds & Kelly-Bateman, 2008).

When I examine the vast array of connections in my life, I perceive my learning networks continuing to expand and intersect at increasing speeds.  Informal connections at work, home and in cross-cultural contexts relate to each other and the online learning environment.  Connectivism presents a holistic approach of inclusion and change (Merriam, 2008.  It considers my previous, present and future networks and links them to an ever growing network of technology, resources, stories, learning theories and previous knowledge.   It focuses on the present and future environments with the necessary flexibility to contextualize to the diverse and specific environments.  It changes according to the times (Siemens, 2005).


Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137–159. Retrieved April 1, 2015 from

Clark, M., & Rossiter, M. (2008). Narrative Learning In Adulthood. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 61-70. Retrieved April 4, 2015, from Rossiter.pdf

Davis, C., Edmunds, E., & Kelly-Bateman, V. (2008). Connectivism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from

Laureate Education (Producer). (n.d.). Connectivism [Video file]. Retrieved April 1, 2015 from

Merriam, S. B. (2008). Adult learning theory for the twenty-first century. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 119, 93–98.

Ormrod, J., Schunk, D., & Gredler, M. (2009). Learning theories and instruction (Laureate custom edition). New York: Pearson.

Siemens, G. (2005, January). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology & Distance Learning, Retrieved April 1, 2015, from